AP Chemistry : Orbitals and Hybridization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Chemistry

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Orbitals And Hybridization

What is the orbital hybridization of ?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

has six bonds and no lone pairs, so it has an octahedral geometry and its bonds are hybridized.

Example Question #2 : Orbitals And Hybridization

What is the hybridization on the sulfur molecule in the following molecule?

H2S

Possible Answers:
s
sp2
sp3d
sp
sp3
Correct answer: sp3
Explanation:

the sulfur has 2 atoms bonded (the H) and 2 pairs of electrons, which is a total of 4 electron domains. The hybridization of the sulfur therefore is sp3

Example Question #1 : Orbitals And Hybridization

What is the hybridization of the molecular bonds and molecular geometry of NH_3?

Possible Answers:

sp^2 hybridization and trigonal pyramidal geometry

sp^2 hybridization and trigonal planar geometry

sp^3 hybridization and trigonal planar geometry

sp^3 hybridization and trigonal pyramidal geometry

None of the available answers

Correct answer:

sp^3 hybridization and trigonal pyramidal geometry

Explanation:

Nitrogen is a Group 5 element, so when it is bound to three hydrogen atoms, it will have a lone pair.

NH_3 has four areas of electron density (three bonds and one lone pair), so its bonds are sp^3 hybridized.

Because of the lone pair, NH_3 has a trigonal pyramidal geometry.

Example Question #2 : Orbitals And Hybridization

Which of the following molecules has an atom with  hybridization? 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

 hybridization occurs when a double bond is present in a molecule. The only molecule that has a double bond is ethene . Both carbon atoms exhibit hybridization.

hybridization is observed in atoms that have only single bonds, while hybridization occurs when a triple bond is present. The other given molecules all contain only hybridized atoms.

Example Question #3 : Orbitals And Hybridization

A carbonyl carbon is double bonded to an oxygen atom, as well as two other substituents. What type of hybrid orbitals are present on the carbonyl carbon? 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Carbon hybrid orbitals are combinations of s and p valence orbitals, and are equal in energy. The hybridization of an atom is dependent on the number of atoms that it is bonded to, as well as the number of lone pairs on the atom in question. A carbonyl carbon is bonded to three other atoms (keep in mind the double bond is not counted twice!) and it has no lone electron pairs. As a result, a carbonyl carbon will exhibit  hybridization.

A carbon with four substituents will be hybridized. A carbon with a double bond will be hybridized. A carbon with a triple bond or two double bonds will be hybridized.

Example Question #1 : Orbitals And Hybridization

Molecule XMe_5 has a trigonal bipyramidal shape. What type of hybridization describes its bonds?

Possible Answers:

spdf^2

spd^3

sp^3d

sp^2d^2

s^2p^3

Correct answer:

sp^3d

Explanation:

Trigonal bipyramidal geometries arise from the hybridization of one s orbital, three p orbitals, and one d orbital, hence the name sp^3d.

Example Question #5 : Orbitals And Hybridization

What is the maximum number of electrons an s subshell holds?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Each s subshell has 2 electrons in it, each with opposing spin. 

Example Question #2 : Orbitals And Hybridization

How many electrons are there in the p subshell?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Each p subshell can have a maximum of 6 electrons in it. Note that there are three p orbitals, denoted px, py, and pzThese orbitals represent the plane in space in which they reside.

Example Question #6 : Orbitals And Hybridization

What is the maximum number of electrons in a d subshell?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Remember that the d block involves the transition metals. There are 10 transition metal elements per row/period, and those 10 transition elements represent the maximum 10 possible electrons that can be held per d subshell. The d subshell has five orbitals, each with the potential to hold two electrons.

Example Question #2 : Orbitals And Hybridization

What is the maximum number of electrons in the f subshell?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

The f block includes the lanthanides and actinides. There are 14 elements per period/row in the f block, which represent each electron that can fit in the subshell. Thus the f subshell has seven orbitals, each of which can hold a maximum of two electrons for a total of 14.

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