AP Chemistry : Elemental Properties and Types

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Chemistry

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Elemental Properties And Types

Sodium will react with oxygen and form an ionic compound. Which of the following is false concerning this interaction?

Possible Answers:

In this compound, oxygen is the anion while the two sodium atoms are defined as cations

The ionic compound has an overall neutral charge

Sodium has a higher electronegativity than oxygen, causing it to give its electron to oxygen

The electrons are not equally shared between sodium and oxygen

Both oxygen and the two sodiums are given stable octets by creating the ionic compound

Correct answer:

Sodium has a higher electronegativity than oxygen, causing it to give its electron to oxygen

Explanation:

Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom to attract an electron in a bond that it shares with another atom. Because oxygen wants to receive two elctrons, while both sodiums wish to lose one electron, oxygen has a higher electronegativity than sodium. Typically, electronegativity can be seen as increasing as you go to the top right of the periodic table. For example, fluorine has a higher electronegativity than nitrogen.

Example Question #2 : Elemental Properties And Types

What is the energy required to form a gaseous cation from a gaseous atom?

Possible Answers:

Ionization energy

Free energy

Kinetic energy

Electronegativity

Correct answer:

Ionization energy

Explanation:

This is the correct definition of ionization energy. By removing an electron from an atom, a cation is produced.

Example Question #3 : Elemental Properties And Types

Why can some atoms exceed the octet rule?

Possible Answers:

They do not exhibit any intermolecular forces

They have d-orbitals where the extra electrons can go

They are very electronegative. 

They are nonmetals

Correct answer:

They have d-orbitals where the extra electrons can go

Explanation:

Atoms in the third period and above have d-orbitals that can hold up to 10 elecrons. This is what allows for atoms to exceed the octet rule.

Example Question #4 : Elemental Properties And Types

What properties do metallic compounds have that others lack?

Possible Answers:

Solid at room temperature

Brittle lattice structure

Conductivity in the liquid phase

Conductivity in the solid phase

Correct answer:

Conductivity in the solid phase

Explanation:

Metallic compounds have unique properties due to their electron motility. In metals, electrons are able to move freely around and between atoms. In non-metals, electrons are more tightly bound to the nucleus due to increased nuclear positive charge and decreased atomic radius. The fluidity of electrons in metals allows them to conduct electric charge.

Metals are generally non-brittle. Metals are solids at room temperature and conduct electricity in the liquid phase, but they share these properties with a number of non-metal compounds as well.

Example Question #5 : Elemental Properties And Types

Why are the transition metals good conductors of electricity?

Possible Answers:
They lose electrons from p orbitals
They have small band gaps
Most transition metals have 3d electrons that only partially fill the valence band
They have no valence electrons
The energy levels of the atomic orbitals are close together
Correct answer: Most transition metals have 3d electrons that only partially fill the valence band
Explanation:

Transition metals have only partially filled valence bands. Thus, the electrons can move among the d orbitals, and this electron flow allows the transition metals to be good conductors of electricity. 

Example Question #6 : Elemental Properties And Types

Which of the following does not determine the length of an element's atomic radius?

Possible Answers:

Number of neutrons

Number of electron shells

Effective nuclear charge that electrons experience

Number of valence electrons

Correct answer:

Number of neutrons

Explanation:

The number of neutorns is the only thing out of the answer choices that does not impact an element's atomic radius. Since neutrons have no charge, they do not impact the attractive forces between electrons and protons.

Example Question #7 : Elemental Properties And Types

Whcih of the following does not obey the octet rule?

Possible Answers:

Carbon

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Hydrogen

Correct answer:

Hydrogen

Explanation:

Hydrogen does not have enough space for 8 electrons, since it has only one s-subshell, which holds a maximum of 2 electrons.

Example Question #8 : Elemental Properties And Types

Which of the following atoms is least likely to have a full octet when it is part of a molecule?

Possible Answers:

C

Cl

B

O

Correct answer:

B

Explanation:

B (boron) is one of the atoms known for making fewer than 4 covalent bonds, and therefore not filling its octet. C (carbon) always makes 4 bonds, while O (oxygen) and Cl (chloride) are also known for having full octets.

Example Question #9 : Elemental Properties And Types

Which of the following elements behaves the most like calcium?

Possible Answers:

Bromine

Scandium

Rubidium

Potassium

Strontium

Correct answer:

Strontium

Explanation:

Strontium is in the same group as calcium in the periodic table, which means that they both have the same number of valence electrons; they are both alkaline earth metals with two valence electrons. This is one of the most important chemical properties, as it dictates how an element will react. Like calcium, strontium will lose its two valence electrons easily to form ionic compounds.

Example Question #10 : Elemental Properties And Types

Which of the following best explains effective nuclear charge (Zeff)?

Possible Answers:

An electrostatic attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus

The charge of an electron

The atomic mass of an element

The number of protons and neutrons of an element

The charge of any nucleon

Correct answer:

An electrostatic attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus

Explanation:

The correct answer choice is an accurate explanation of effective nuclear charge. Since electrons are negatively charged, they are attracted to protons, which are positively charged. Protons are located in the nucleus of an atom.

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