AP Biology : Understanding the Spinal Cord

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Understanding The Spinal Cord

Which of the following is not part of the peripheral nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Radial nerve

Lumbar Plexus

Prefrontal cortex

Tibial nerve

Intercostal nerves

Correct answer:

Prefrontal cortex

Explanation:

The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of any nerves or ganglia, not including the brain and spinal cord. The prefrontal cortex is a structure in the cerebrum of the brain, and is thus part of the central nervous system.

General nerves throughout the body are part of the peripheral nervous system.

Example Question #2 : Understanding The Spinal Cord

What are the vertebral classifications, from superior to inferior?

Possible Answers:

Thoracic, lumbar, sacral, cervical

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral

Cervical, sacral, thoracic, lumbar

Cervical, lumbar, thoracic, sacral

Lumbar, thoracic, cervical, sacral

Correct answer:

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral

Explanation:

The spinal cord and vertebrae is broken down into four regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar vertebrae, and five sacral vertebrae. Cervical vertebrae are located in the neck, thoracic vertebrae in the trunk or upper back, lumbar vertebrae in the lower back, and sacral vertebrae in the gluteal region. The sacral vertebrae are fused into a single unit known as the sacrum.

Example Question #11 : Neural Anatomy

Which portion of the spinal cord sends sensory information to the brain?

Possible Answers:

Lateral horn

Dorsal horn

Ventral horn

Central canal

Correct answer:

Dorsal horn

Explanation:

The spinal cord consists of functional horns that help send information to the brain, as well as to the parts of the body. The dorsal horns send sensory information to the brain, while the ventral horns contain motor neurons.

Example Question #4 : Understanding The Spinal Cord

What is the correct order of the spinal meninges starting from the outside going inwards towards the spinal cord (superficial to deep)?

Possible Answers:

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

Arachnoid mater, pia mater, dura mater

Pia mater, dura mater, arachnoid mater

Dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater

Correct answer:

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Explanation:

The correct order of the spinal meninges from superficial to deep (outside to inside) is dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. The dura mater is the most outer layer that is closely associated with the skill and vertebral column. Deep to the dura mater is the arachnoid mater, which contains the cerebrospinal found in the subarachnoid space. Underneath the subarachnoid space lies the pia mater, which is very closely associated with the brain and spinal cord. 

Example Question #2 : Understanding The Spinal Cord

What is the correct order of the spinal meninges from superficial to deep?

Possible Answers:

Dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater

Pia mater, dura mater, arachnoid mater

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Arachnoid mater, pia mater, dura mater

Arachnoid mater, dura mater, pia mater

Correct answer:

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Explanation:

The correct answer is dura mater, arachnoid and lastly the pia mater. The meninges surround the brain and spinal cord in the central nervous system and are made up of three layers. The outermost layer is the dura mater, beneath it lies the arachnoid and below that is the pia mater.

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