AP Biology : Understanding Other Respiratory Anatomy

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #2 : Understanding Respiratory Structures

How many lobes does the right lung have?

Possible Answers:

Two

Five

One

Three

Four

Correct answer:

Three

Explanation:

The right lung contains three lobes: upper, middle, and lower. The left lungs contains two lobes: upper and lower. The left lung is designed to be smaller than the right in order to accommodate the heart, which is situated slightly to the left.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Other Respiratory Anatomy

Which of the following anatomical structures is found within the respiratory system?

Possible Answers:

Alveoli

All of these structures are found within the respiratory system

Bronchiole

Trachea

Pharynx

Correct answer:

All of these structures are found within the respiratory system

Explanation:

The respiratory system allows air to enter the lungs from the outside environment and facilitates gas exchange with the blood. Air initially enters through the mouth or nose, passes through the pharynx and larynx, and enters the trachea. From the trachea, air travels through branching structures from bronchi, to bronchiole, to alveoli. Gas exchange occurs between the air in the alveoli and the capillaries surrounding the alveoli.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Other Respiratory Anatomy

What respiratory structure connects the nasal passages and the mouth?

Possible Answers:

Lungs

Trachea

Pharynx

Bronchioles

Larynx

Correct answer:

Pharynx

Explanation:

The pharynx, located posteriorly (behind) the nasal passages and the mouth, is responsible for collecting the air that is taken in via the nose and mouth. The pharynx then passes the air to the larynx before it flows into the trachea. The trachea carries the air to the bronchioles, which end in terminal alveoli in the lungs.

Example Question #71 : Systems Physiology

Which of the following is the correct path of air through the respiratory system?

Possible Answers:

Larynx, pharynx, bronchi, trachea, lungs

Bronchi, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs

Trachea, bronchi, larynx, pharynx, lungs

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, pharynx, lungs

Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Correct answer:

Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Explanation:

Air enters the body through the nose or mouth, and is transferred to the pharynx (the upper portion of the throat located at the back of the mouth). The larynx is commonly called the "voice box," and is the lower portion of the throat connected to the pharynx. From there, air enters the trachea and flows into the chest. The trachea branches into two bronchi, which continue to branch and divide as the air is carried into the lungs.

Example Question #72 : Systems Physiology

What is the purpose of the nasal passage?

Possible Answers:

The nasal passage is largely vestigial in humans

The nasal passage warms or cools air to body temperature and filters air

The nasal passage filters air

The nasal passage allows transfer of oxygen to the nose and face

Correct answer:

The nasal passage warms or cools air to body temperature and filters air

Explanation:

The nasal passage's main function is to heat or cool air before it enters the lungs. The cilia, mucous and hair also help filter air since the respiratory system is very sensitive to allergens and infection. Also, the lungs need to be kept moist and lubricated, so dry air is damaging. No gas exchange occurs in the nasal passage, it is merely a conduction zone through which air must travel before it gets to the alveoli where gas exchange occurs with the pulmonary capillaries.

Example Question #73 : Systems Physiology

Before it enters the lungs, air must pass through which of the following structures?

Possible Answers:

Nephrons

Alveoli

The esophagus

The pharynx

Correct answer:

The pharynx

Explanation:

After entering the nose and mouth, air is passed into the pharynx. It then travels to the larynx, which houses the vocal cords, before entering the trachea. The trachea transports the air into the thoracic cavity before branching into the primary bronchi. The right bronchus carries air to the right lung; the left bronchus carries air to the left lung. Of the given answer options, air only passes through the pharynx before entering the lungs.

Alveoli are found in the lungs and the primary site of gas exchange; however, the question specifies a structure before the air enters the lungs. The esophagus transports food, and is not involved in respiration. Nephrons are the function units of the excretory system, and are located in the kidneys.

Example Question #74 : Systems Physiology

The right lung has __________ lobes, and the left lung has __________ lobes.

Possible Answers:

four . . . two

two . . . two

three . . . three

three . . . three

two . . . three

Correct answer:

three . . . three

Explanation:

The right lung has 3 lobes and left lung has only 2 lobes to allow room for the heart. The majority of the heart is on the left side of the body since the left ventricle is the largest and thickest-walled chamber of the heart.

Example Question #75 : Systems Physiology

Which portion of the respiratory system extends from the larynx to the bronchi? 

Possible Answers:

Alveoli

Esophagus

Bronchioles

Pharynx

Trachea

Correct answer:

Trachea

Explanation:

Anterior to the esophagus, the trachea begins at the larynx (voice box) and extends down towards the lungs where it splits into the bronchi. The trachea is a conducting structure, meaning no gas exchange occurs in the trachea. Instead, it is held open by "C" shaped rings of cartilage to allow maximum airflow between the lungs and the air in the environment. 

Example Question #1 : Understanding Other Respiratory Anatomy

What is the function of nasal cilia? 

Possible Answers:

Olfaction

To create mucus

Allow for the insertion of a nasal cannula

To warm, moisturize, and filter inhaled air

To support nasal cartilage 

Correct answer:

To warm, moisturize, and filter inhaled air

Explanation:

The nose is the primary passageway of air into the lungs. Before air can safely enter the body, it must be brought to body temperature, moisturized and cleansed of any particles that could damage the respiratory system or cause infection. Mucous is produced by goblet cells. Olfaction is carried out by specialized neurons in the nose that bind to certain molecules and send information to the brain.

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