AP Biology : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which statement describes the inheritance of mitochondrial DNA?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondrial DNA is solely inherited from the father

Mitochondrial DNA is derived from an undefined mix between the mitochondrial DNA of the parents

Mitochondrial DNA is developed by the fetus, and is unrelated to either parent

Mitochondrial DNA is solely inherited from the mother

Half of the mitochondrial DNA is inherited from the mother and half is inherited from the father

Correct answer:

Mitochondrial DNA is solely inherited from the mother

Explanation:

When a sperm and egg fuse to form a zygote, the nucleus of the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the egg. As a result, the father's genome is passed onto the offspring, but no cellular organelles from the sperm are transferred. Any DNA contained in the mitochondria must come from the mother's egg, and could not have come from the cytoplasm of the sperm. The offspring will inherit all mitochondrial DNA from the mother.

This allows geneticists to trace mitochondrial lineages to find distant ancestors and track the evolution of species.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

What structure is responsible for secreting progesterone following ovulation?

Possible Answers:

Zona pellucida

Corpus luteum

Corpus albicans

Secondary follicle

Correct answer:

Corpus luteum

Explanation:

Following ovulation, the remaining follicle previously containing the egg is called the corpus luteum. This structure will release progesterone, and continue to do so if the egg is fertilized and a zygote is formed. If no pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum will degrade into the corpus albicans.

Example Question #1586 : Ap Biology

Which of the following is caused by the luteal surge?

Possible Answers:

Menstruation

Ovulation

Oogenesis

Fertilization

Correct answer:

Ovulation

Explanation:

The luteal surge is characterized by a sharp increase in estradiol (estrogen) levels, which then causes an increase in luteinizing hormone levels. This event causes ovulation to take place.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following choices best describes where the secondary oocyte travels in the female reproductive tract after it is released from the follicle?

Possible Answers:

Vagina

Ovary

Uterus

Fallopian tube

Correct answer:

Fallopian tube

Explanation:

The release of the secondary oocyte from the follicle is called ovulation. During this process, a hole called the “stigma” is formed and it allows the secondary oocyte to leave the follicle surrounded by a layer of cells called the cumulus oophorus. After its release, the secondary oocyte enters the fallopian tube.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following hormones does not spike in concentration to trigger ovulation?

Possible Answers:

Progesterone

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Estrogen

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Correct answer:

Progesterone

Explanation:

Leading up to ovulation, the developing follicle secretes estrogen. Over time, this secretion increases estrogen concentration. This high concentration of estrogen triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. The spike in LH and FSH concentrations lead to the release of the secondary oocyte from the follicle. Progesterone, on the other hand, is only present at low concentrations at the time of ovulation. Progesterone levels rise after ovulation.

Example Question #4 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following molecular changes leading to ovulation is caused by a spike in luteinizing hormone (LH)?

Possible Answers:

A release of hormones that develop the zona pellucida

 Meiotic recombination of the secondary oocyte

The release of proteolytic enzymes to form the stigma

The maturation of the secondary oocyte

Correct answer:

The release of proteolytic enzymes to form the stigma

Explanation:

The slow increase in estrogen concentration leading up to ovulation triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland. The spike in LH initiates signal transduction pathways that release proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes create a hole, or stigma, in the follicle that allows the secondary oocyte to exit.

Example Question #5 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes the effect of high estrogen concentrations on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels?

Possible Answers:

Has no effect on FSH levels

Maintains FSH levels

Increases FSH levels 

Decreases FSH levels

Correct answer:

Increases FSH levels 

Explanation:

During the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are in a positive feedback loop. High concentrations of estrogen stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH and FSH.

Example Question #4 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

In mammalian reproduction, what is the stigma?

Possible Answers:

The hole that forms in the follicle to allow for oocyte release

The resulting diploid organism that develops after the fusion of an egg and sperm 

The layer of cells surrounding the released oocyte 

The entrance to the fallopian tubes

Correct answer:

The hole that forms in the follicle to allow for oocyte release

Explanation:

The increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration during the follicular stage of the estrous cycle leads to the release of proteolytic enzymes from the follicle. These enzymes degrade the follicle tissue and create a hole called the “stigma.” The secondary oocyte exits the follicle from the stigma in a process called ovulation.

Example Question #6 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following male reproductive structures does not contribute to the composition of semen?

Possible Answers:

Bulbourethral gland 

Glans penis

Prostate gland 

Seminal vesicles 

Correct answer:

Glans penis

Explanation:

Semen is a fluid that contains sperm cells, proteolytic enzymes, lipids, and fructose. The prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, and seminal vesicles all contribute to the makeup of semen. Semen protects and transports sperm cells inside the female reproductive tract as they seek out the egg cell.

Example Question #4 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

What is the pH of semen and why is it important?

Possible Answers:

Semen is acidic to counteract the alkalinity of the female vagina

Semen is alkaline to attract the egg cell 

Semen is alkaline to counteract the acidity of the female vagina 

Semen is acidic to protect and keep the sperm cell alive 

Correct answer:

Semen is alkaline to counteract the acidity of the female vagina 

Explanation:

Semen is the fluid that contains and transports sperm cells to the female reproductive tract. The female vagina is acidic due to lactic acid output from normally occurring bacteria in the vagina. In order to protect sperm cells from the acidic environment, semen is alkaline.

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