AP Biology : Understanding Other Excretory Anatomy

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #151 : Systems Physiology

Which of the following organs is involved in exocrine function?

Possible Answers:

Kidneys

Skin

Pancreas

All of these choices are correct

Correct answer:

All of these choices are correct

Explanation:

The kidneys are responsible for the excretion of urine, while the skin secretes sweat from the body. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into glands and ducts. Exocrine function differs from endocrine function, in that exocrine excretions involve ducts that generally lead to the body's exterior. Endocrine functions, in contrast, will enter the blood stream and be distributed throughout the body.

Example Question #152 : Systems Physiology

What is a commonality between excretory systems of worms, insects, and vertebrates?

Possible Answers:

Reabsorption mechanisms for water and ions

All of these answers

A complex network of tubules 

A large surface area

Correct answer:

All of these answers

Explanation:

The overall organ systems that perform excretory functions are highly variable between animal groups. All animals, however, share some common features. Water and ion balances must be tightly regulated by reabsorption mechanisms, in order to maintain organismal homeostasis and functions. To assist in this process, the vessels for filtrate transport must have a large surface area. Proteins, pumps, and channels along this surface serve to moderate water and ion transport.

Example Question #153 : Systems Physiology

The urinary tract consists of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Cannot be determined without knowing the subject's sex

One bladder, two kidneys, one ureter, two urethras

One bladder, two kidneys, two ureters, one urethra

Two bladders, two kidneys, one ureter, one urethra

Two bladders, two kidneys, two ureters, one urethra

Correct answer:

One bladder, two kidneys, two ureters, one urethra

Explanation:

Blood is filtered from the renal artery into the kidneys, where it is processed into urine. Each of the two kidneys is connected to the bladder via a ureter. The bladder has only one exit, the urethra, which carries the urine out of the body.

In summary, there are two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra.

Example Question #154 : Systems Physiology

What section of the nephron is primarily responsible for concentrating the urine?

Possible Answers:

Distal convoluted tubule

Loop of Henle

Glomerulus

Proximal convoluted tubule

Correct answer:

Loop of Henle

Explanation:

The filtrate is processed as it moves throughout the nephron prior to entering the ureters to be expelled. The glomerulus is a capillary bed that deposits filtrate from the blood into the nephron. The proximal tubule does not alter the osmolarity of the primary filtrate. The loop of Henle then concentrates the urine, only to have the concentration lowered again in the distal convoluted tubule.

Example Question #156 : Systems Physiology

Which product, secreted by the kidney, helps regulate blood pressure?

Possible Answers:

Cortisol

Renin

Antidiuretic hormone

Aldosterone

Correct answer:

Renin

Explanation:

The kidneys are able to help regulate blood pressure by releasing the hormone renin. Renin initiates a cascade that ends with the adrenal cortex releasing aldosterone. Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of sodium ions in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. The increase in surrounding ion concentration resulting from the reabsorption pulls water out of the nephron via osmosis, concentrating the urine and promoting water retention.

Example Question #157 : Systems Physiology

Which term describes a one-way valve composed of smooth muscle that functions in elimination?

Possible Answers:

Cecum

Vilus

Varix

Sphincter

Plica

Correct answer:

Sphincter

Explanation:

A sphincter is a circular band of mucle that, when constricted, closes an orifice. For example, the pyloric sphincter prevents stomach contents from entering the small intestine before it has been properly digested.

A varix is a twisted, dilated vein, as in varicose vein. Plica refers to one of the folds of the intestinal mucosa. The cecum is a blind pouch at the end of the ascending colon. At its end is the appendix. A vilus is the singular term for "villi," and refers to the minute projections on the intestinal mucosa that function in the absorption of nutrients. 

Example Question #155 : Systems Physiology

Jellyfish possess a digestive sac with a single opening through which food is injested and wastes are ejected. What term describes this organ?

Possible Answers:

Food vacuole

Tubular digestive tract

Gastrovascular cavity

Gizzard

Crop

Correct answer:

Gastrovascular cavity

Explanation:

Jellyfish possess a gastrovascular cavity, which serves as both mouth and anus. Food is captured and enters the gastrovascular cavity, where enzymes break it down and cells absorb the nutrients. The undigested remains leave through the same opening by which they entered.

A food vacule is a temporary stomach found in sponges. A crop is a storage organ that earthworms use to collect food. The gizzard receives food from the crop and, through the process of contraction, grinds the food into small particles. The crop and gizzard are parts of what is termed a "tubular digestive tract," which consists of a series of regions that process the food.

Example Question #159 : Systems Physiology

What is the correct order through the excretory system from start to end?

Possible Answers:

Glomerulus, loop of Henle, Bowman's capsule, ureter

Loop of Henle, glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, ureter

Loop of Henle, ureter, glomerulus, Bowman's capsule 

Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, loop of Henle, ureter

Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, loop of Henle, ureter

Correct answer:

Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, loop of Henle, ureter

Explanation:

Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, loop of Henle, ureter is the correct order. Blood is filtered from the glomerulus and becomes the filtrate as it enters the Bowman's capsule. The filtrate then passes through the loop of Henle of the nephron and exits the kidney, entering the ureter as urine where it is collected in the urinary bladder.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Other Excretory Anatomy

Which of the following statements is false concerning the liver?

Possible Answers:

The gallbladder is found underneath the liver

Liver cells are called hepatocytes

The liver is found on the left side of the abdomen

The liver plays an important role in the breakdown of alcohol and other toxic metabolites

Correct answer:

The liver is found on the left side of the abdomen

Explanation:

The liver is found on the right side of the body in the abdomen. Remember the liver is on the right side of the abdominal cavity. The liver cells (hepatocytes) function to detoxify products such as alcohols and other drugs.

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