AP Art History : Identifying artists, works, or schools of fourteenth- through sixteenth-century 2D art

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Art History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

The artist who created the famous painting of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V on horseback was __________.

Possible Answers:

Hans Holbein

Sandro Botticelli

Titian

Diego Velázquez

Correct answer:

Titian

Explanation:

After the Battle of Muhlberg in 1547, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had a portrait commissioned to celebrate his victory. He specifically called on the Italian artist Titian, who created a portrait that was a model of Renaissance portraiture. Titian shows a realistic looking Emperor bestride a massive horse, with allusions to mythology, Roman art, and Charles' own history.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

The early Renaissance painter of the massive allegorical painting "The Garden of Earthly Delights" was __________.

Possible Answers:

Titian

Sandro Botticelli

Hieronymus Bosch

Hans Holbein

Correct answer:

Hieronymus Bosch

Explanation:

The Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosch took many of the conventions of Medieval art and turned them on their heads. His "Garden of Earthly Delights" is a triptych altarpiece depicting religious themes and is meant as instruction in religious belief. It also, however, features odd figures and a massive scale with unique perspectives that helped kick off many features of Renaissance art.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

The German painter who made portraits of early Protestant reformers and altarpieces for Lutheran churches was __________.

Possible Answers:

Lucas Cranach the Elder

Hans Holbein the Younger

Albrecht Durer

Peter Brueghel the Elder

Correct answer:

Lucas Cranach the Elder

Explanation:

Lucas Cranach the Elder played an important role in the Protestant Reformation: not only did he paint portraits of leading German reformers like Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon, but he also made altarpieces and devotional pieces that conformed to Lutheran precepts. Cranach's use of realistic drawings and perspective owed a debt to the Italian renaissance, but his use of symbolism and plain depictions were largely due to the influence of the Protestant Reformation.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

Portraiture done in three-dimensional settings, with props and furniture, was a signature element of the work of the sixteenth-century artist __________.

Possible Answers:

Lucas Cranach the Younger

Nicholas Hilliard

Hans Holbein the Younger

Peter Bruegher the Elder

Correct answer:

Hans Holbein the Younger

Explanation:

Hans Holbein the Younger had a strange relationship to other early Renaissance painters. Famous for his portraits of the court of King Henry VIII of England, Holbein crafted realistic portraits of his subjects using perspective and other techniques borrowed from Italian Renaissance painters. Nonetheless, his symbolism and allegory contained in settings and props for his portraits called back to Gothic styles.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

 

Van_eyck_-_arnolfini_portrait     

Figure 1

 481px-weyden_madonna_1440

Figure 2

Each of these paintings would have a direct influence on __________.

Possible Answers:

Catholic hagiography

Norman artwork

the Italian Renaissance

neo-classicism

Correct answer:

the Italian Renaissance

Explanation:

Both Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden are part of what is now known as early Netherlandish painting. This largely fifteenth-century school of painting introduced a few key techniques and styles, such as oil painting and approaches to perspective, that were highly influential. In particular, many artists in the early Italian Renaissance were directly influenced by early Netherlandish painting.

Example Question #6 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

File:Fra Angelico 069.jpg  File:CaravaggioEmmaus.jpg

 

                                          Figure 3                                                                                           Figure 4

The painting shown in Figure 3 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

Renaissance painting

Baroque painting

Medieval painting

Mannerist painting

Correct answer:

Medieval painting

Explanation:

Fra Angelico is considered one of the masters of devotional art from the Middle Ages. This painting, depicting an important scene from the Bible, exhibits many of the key features of such art. Both the angel and Mary have halos around their heads and are placed in a flat space, and important symbolism is used.

Figure 3: The Annunciation (Cortona) by Fra Angelico (1433)

Figure 4: Supper at Emmaus (Milan) by Caravaggio (1606)

Example Question #62 : Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

The wall fresco behind the altar of the Sistine Chapel in Rome known as The Last Judgement was painted by __________.

Possible Answers:

Titian

Sandro Botticelli

Leonardo da Vinci

Michelangelo

Correct answer:

Michelangelo

Explanation:

The Last Judgement takes up the entire altar wall in the Sistine Chapel with a scene depicting human souls being judged by Christ while surrounded by a number of saints. Michelangelo's masterful composition and stunning portraiture make this painting one of his masterpieces, along with the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The painting has not been without controversy, however, as Michelangelo depicted the souls in judgement as nudes, which both showed them as equals and violated decorum.

Example Question #63 : Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

The Catholic saint often portrayed in art with simple robes and accompanied by birds is __________.

Possible Answers:

Saint Francis of Assisi

Saint Ignatius of Loyola

Pope Saint Pius V

Saint Patrick of Ireland

Correct answer:

Saint Francis of Assisi

Explanation:

Francis of Assisi was a minor Italian nobleman of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries who took a vow of asceticism and became influential as a monastic reformer and the founder of the Franciscan Order. Francis of Assisi became hugely popular in the Counter Reformation and therefore in Baroque art. Francis of Assisi can be identified in art by his plain brown robes and the birds and animals that usually are flocking around him.

Example Question #64 : Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

Van Eyck - Arnolfini Portrait.jpg

Pictured above is the Arnolfini Portrait, and can be found at the Website of National Gallery, London.

In commemoration of what event was this portrait painted?

Possible Answers:

A court event

The death of a family member

A Danish festival

A wedding

The birth of a noble child

Correct answer:

A wedding

Explanation:

The joining of their hands, the headdress the woman wears and the position of the woman nearer to the bed are all symbolic of a union of marriage between these two people.

Example Question #65 : Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Century 2 D Art

Which painter created the portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V on horseback that commemorated the Imperial victory at the Battle of Mühlberg?

Possible Answers:

Titian

Michelangelo

Peter Breughel

Caravaggio

Correct answer:

Titian

Explanation:

The Equestrian Portrait of Charles V, which includes the actual horse and armor the Emperor used at Mühlberg, is one of Titian's most famous and significant works. The painting combined a realistic foreground of the emperor and his horse with a more airy background, while containing little of the symbolic elements typical of paintings of the era. Titian's painting became a template for many later portraits of monarchs in equestrian poses.

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