Ancient History: Rome : Crisis of the Third Century

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Ancient History: Rome

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

← Previous 1

Example Question #1 : Crisis Of The Third Century

The Palmyrene and Gallic Empires both broke away from Rome during the rule of __________.

Possible Answers:

Commodus

Titus

Gallienus

Theodosius

Nerva

Correct answer:

Gallienus

Explanation:

During the Crisis of the Third Century, two breakaway empires were formed from territory controlled by the Roman Empire. These two empires were the Palmyrene Empire in the east and the Gallic Empire in the northwest. They both broke away from the Roman Empire during the reign of Gallienus. Gallienus ruled throughout much of the middle period of the Crisis of the Third Century and, in spite of his best efforts, was unable to prevent the splintering of the Roman Empire and incapable of leading the reunification movement.

Example Question #2 : Crisis Of The Third Century

Queen Zenobia was a ruler of __________ during the Crisis of the Third Century.

Possible Answers:

the Western Roman Empire

the Sassanid Empire

the Gallic Empire

the Palmyrene Empire

the Eastern Roman Empire

Correct answer:

the Palmyrene Empire

Explanation:

Queen Zenobia was a ruler of the short lived Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century. She led a revolt (along with her husband) against the Roman Empire and helped form the Palmyrene state. She then led the conquest of Egypt (after her husband’s death) and ruled for a few years before she was captured by Aurelian and held hostage. Her empire would swiftly be reabsorbed into the Roman Empire.

Example Question #3 : Crisis Of The Third Century

Which of these best describes the Palmyrene Empire?

Possible Answers:

A wealthy North African empire which was conquered by the Romans during the reign of Trajan.

A short lived, breakaway empire of Rome, which existed during the Crisis of the Third Century.

A militaristic empire located in modern-day Scotland, which repeatedly invaded Roman Britain throughout the classical period.

None of these answers accurately describes the Palmyrene Empire.

A short lived, breakaway empire of Rome, which existed during the Year of Four Emperors.

Correct answer:

A short lived, breakaway empire of Rome, which existed during the Crisis of the Third Century.

Explanation:

The Palmyrene Empire was one of two breakaway empires of Rome which were formed during the Crisis of the Third Century (the other was the Gallic Empire). The Palmyrene Empire was situated in modern-day Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor. It successfully defended Roman territory from the Sassanid Empire, but was eventually conquered by Aurelian and reabsorbed into the Roman Empire.

Example Question #4 : Crisis Of The Third Century

What action by the Roman army initiated the onset of the Crisis of the Third Century?

Possible Answers:

None of these

The economy was running well

The emperor, Alexander Severus was murdered

Church and State were separating

There was a widespread famine

Correct answer:

The emperor, Alexander Severus was murdered

Explanation:

Alexander Severus was murdered, triggering the onset of the crisis. There were multiple plagues and the militia began ruling who would take the throne. It is easy to rule out the option that the economy was running well because this would not have triggered a crisis. Also remember that church and state were not attempting to separate at this time in the Roman Empire. The tricky part here is choosing whether famine was the main cause of the Crisis. However, looking to the facts we know that when Alexander Severus was murdered order in the empire fell rapidly leading to the onset of the famous crisis. 

Example Question #5 : Crisis Of The Third Century

The Battle of Emesa __________.

Possible Answers:

ended in the execution of the Emperor Carinus

allowed Rome to reconquer the Palmyrene Empire

ended in the execution of Ptolemy the Great

allowed Rome to reconquer the Gallic Empire

led to the destruction of Carthage

Correct answer:

allowed Rome to reconquer the Palmyrene Empire

Explanation:

The Battle of Emesa was fought in 272 CE between the forces of the Roman Empire, led by Aurelian, and the forces of the breakaway Palmyrene Empire. It ended in defeat for the Palmyrene Empire and allowed Aurelian to conquer and unify the Palmyrene Empire with the rest of the Roman Empire.

Example Question #6 : Crisis Of The Third Century

The Battle of Naissus was fought during __________.

Possible Answers:

the Crisis of the Third Century

the Year of Four Emperors

the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy

the Social War

the Year of Five Emperors

Correct answer:

the Crisis of the Third Century

Explanation:

The Battle of Naissus was fought in 268 CE, between the forces of the Roman Empire (led by Gallienus) and an alliance of Gothic tribes. It was fought at the height of the Crisis of the Third Century and the victory of the Romans would prove something of a turning point in the crisis. The Romans completely annihilated the Gothic army and largely removed the threat of Germanic barbarian occupation of the Roman Empire (at least for a generation or two).

Example Question #7 : Crisis Of The Third Century

The Battle of Chalons was significant because __________.

Possible Answers:

Augustus Caesar was defeated on the battlefield and executed by the invading barbarians

it led to the Gallic Empire being reunited with the rest of the Roman Empire

it allowed Julius Caesar to take control of Gaul

it led to the destruction of Corinth

it allowed Marcus Aurelius to take control of Germania

Correct answer:

it led to the Gallic Empire being reunited with the rest of the Roman Empire

Explanation:

The Battle of Chalons was fought in 274 CE, during the later years of the Crisis of the Third Century. The battle ended in victory for the forces of the Roman Empire, led by Aurelian, and defeat for the forces of the Gallic Empire, led by Tetricus. The battle resulted in the end of the Gallic Empire and its absorption back into the Roman Empire.

Example Question #8 : Crisis Of The Third Century

Valerian and Gallienus both ruled during the __________.

Possible Answers:

Crisis of the Third Century

Flavian Dynasty

Julio-Claudian Dynasty

Year of the Five Emperors

Year of the Four Emperors

Correct answer:

Crisis of the Third Century

Explanation:

Valerian and Gallienus were two of the most notable emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. Valerian, and his son Gallienus, were declared co-emperors in 253 CE and worked tirelessly to reunite and rebuild the Roman Empire. Their work, however, was ultimately unsuccessful; Valerian was captured by Sassanid forces in the Middle East and Gallienus was assassinated by a rival claimant to the throne

Example Question #9 : Crisis Of The Third Century

Which of these battles witnessed a Roman Emperor being captured by the enemy for the first time in Roman history?

Possible Answers:

the Battle of Adrianople

the Battle of Cumae

the Battle of Corinth

the Battle of Alesia

the Battle of Edessa

Correct answer:

the Battle of Edessa

Explanation:

The Battle of Edessa, fought in 260 CE, was the first battle in which a Roman Emperor was captured by the forces of the enemy. The emperor in question was Emperor Valerian, who ruled during the turbulent period known as the Crisis of the Third Century. After Valerian’s capture, his son Gallienus ruled as the sole Emperor.

Example Question #10 : Crisis Of The Third Century

The Battle of Margus was instrumental in the rise to power of __________.

Possible Answers:

Diocletian

Constantine

Gaius Marius

Justinian I

Cleopatra

Correct answer:

Diocletian

Explanation:

The Battle of Margus was fought in 284 CE, between the forces of Diocletian and the forces of the Emperor Carinus. The battle ended in victory for Diocletian and allowed him to take control of the entire Roman Empire. The Battle of Margus is one of the last battles of the Crisis of the Third Century, as shortly thereafter Diocletian was able to enact a series of reforms which temporarily strengthened the Roman Empire.

← Previous 1
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: