Ancient History: Egypt : The Arrival of the Hyksos

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Ancient History: Egypt

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : The Arrival Of The Hyksos

The Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egyptian history began __________.

Possible Answers:

when Khufu died without leaving an heir

with the invasion of the Roman Empire

with the invasion of Alexander the Great

with the invasion of the Hyksos

with the peaceful conquest of the Nubians

Correct answer:

with the invasion of the Hyksos

Explanation:

The Second Intermediate Period lasted from 1,650 BCE until 1,550 BCE It began with the decline of the Middle Kingdom and the emergence of a weak ruling dynasty in Egypt. This dynasty was incapable of resisting foreign invasions and most of Egypt was swiftly conquered by the Hyksos. The Hyksos remained in Egypt and ruled for a century, until they were overthrown by an Egyptian uprising which in turn ushered in the New Kingdom.

Example Question #1 : The Arrival Of The Hyksos

Which of these statements about Hyksos’ rule in Egypt is most accurate?

Possible Answers:

The Hyksos refused to assimilate into Egyptian society and ruled with their own foreign institutions

The Hyksos waged a genocidal campaign against the ancient Egyptians, leading to massive population loss during the Second Intermediate Period

The Hyksos were never able to rule over a unified Egyptian state; they held power mostly in the North

The Hyksos neglected agricultural production and ordered the construction of immense monuments, leading to massive population loss during the Second Intermediate Period

The Hyksos were never able to rule over a unified Egyptian state; they held power mostly in the South

Correct answer:

The Hyksos were never able to rule over a unified Egyptian state; they held power mostly in the North

Explanation:

The Hyksos were foreign invaders who conquered most of Lower (northern) Egypt at the end of the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history. Although the Hyksos did reign over most of Egypt, as the Fifteenth Dynasty, they were never able to unite the whole Egyptian state. They forced the government in Upper (southern) Egypt to pay severe taxes, but were unable to conquer their rivals.

Example Question #2 : The Arrival Of The Hyksos

Which of these statements about wheeled-transportation is accurate?

Possible Answers:

None of these statements are accurate.

The wheel was introduced into wider Egyptian society by the Hyksos.

All of these statements are accurate.

The wheel was not commonly used in Egypt during the Old Kingdom.

Egyptian terrain was ill-suited to wheeled-transport.

Correct answer:

All of these statements are accurate.

Explanation:

Wheeled-transportation was extremely uncommon in ancient Egypt until the arrival of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. Egyptian terrain was ill-suited to wheeled-transport and it only really caught on after the Hyksos introduced the ancient Egyptians to horse-drawn chariots.

Example Question #3 : The Arrival Of The Hyksos

What was the most important contribution made by the Hyksos to Egyptian society?

Possible Answers:

None of these answers are accurate; the Hyksos had a limited impact on the development of Egypt.

They introduced new crops, which led to a sustained growth in the Egyptian population.

They integrated their pantheon of Gods into the Egyptian religion, leading to a greater diversity of worship.

They introduced powerful new weapons, which revolutionized the Egyptian military.

They introduced revolutionary agricultural techniques, which dramatically increased productivity.

Correct answer:

They introduced powerful new weapons, which revolutionized the Egyptian military.

Explanation:

The Hyksos were foreign invaders who conquered most of Egypt in the 17th century BCE. They ruled most of Egypt for the next century, before being driven out by an Egyptian uprising. The Hyksos had one notable, lasting impact on the development of ancient Egypt. They introduced advanced weaponry, most notably horse-drawn chariots, which revolutionized the Egyptian military and led directly to the massive territorial conquests achieved by Egypt during the New Kingdom.

Example Question #4 : The Arrival Of The Hyksos

Which of the following innovations are the Hyksos NOT credited with introducing into ancient Egypt?

Possible Answers:

New musical instruments, such as the 12-string lute

The Demotic script, which was derived from earlier hieratic and hieroglyphic forms but contained more alphabetic, as opposed to logographic, features

The vertical loom, which greatly improved weaving and spinning

Horses and chariot warfare

Improved metallurgy techniques which allowed the increased use of bronze rather than copper

Correct answer:

The Demotic script, which was derived from earlier hieratic and hieroglyphic forms but contained more alphabetic, as opposed to logographic, features

Explanation:

The Hyksos, whose supposed invasion ended the Middle Kingdom by ushering in the Second Intermediate Period, and whose kings comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, introduced a wide variety of innovations and concepts into Egyptian society. These included everyday improvements such as musical instruments like the tambourine and lute, and weaving implements like the vertical loom; furthermore, Egyptian bronze-making was greatly expanded during this period. However, the introduction of horses into Egypt, as well as chariot warfare, was the aspect of Hyksos culture that had the most lasting and significant effect on Egypt, as the New Kingdom Pharaohs adopted it as their weapon of choice after finally expelling the Hyksos themselves. The Demotic script was not developed until the First Millennium BCE; however, its hieratic predecessor coexisted with hieroglyphics during the earlier periods. 

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