ACT Science : How to find research summary in chemistry

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Example Question #1 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Both gases and liquids are considered to be fluids that have individual molecules that move around with kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy, defined as the energy related to motion, takes three forms: translational energy that occurs as a molecule moves from position A to position B, rotational energy that occurs as a molecule spins around an imaginary axis at its center of mass, and vibrational energy that occurs as individual atoms in a molecular bond move towards and away from each other. Usually, molecules possess varying combinations of kinetic energy forms. In contrast, potential energy is defined as stored energy that could be released to become kinetic energy. The total energy of a molecule is fixed, meaning that a molecule has some combination of kinetic and potential energies.

 

Varying amount of kinetic and potential energies define how molecules in a fluid interact with each other. For example, when the kinetic energy of a molecule is high (greater than 1000J), it can no longer interact with neighboring molecules strongly enough to remain a liquid. However, if the potential energies are too high (greater than 1000 J), molecules cannot escape a liquid to become a gas. If the kinetic energy is high and the potential energy is low, molecules tend to become a gas and can be modeled by an equation known as the Ideal Gas Law:

 

 

 

Where P is the pressure of a gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of a gas, R is a constant, and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

 

The Ideal Gas Law perfectly applies to particles with no mass, no intermolecular interactions, and no true volume. However, real molecules do not adhere perfectly to the Ideal Gas Law.

In an oxygen molecule, O2, the two oxygen atoms oscillate about a fixed central point. Which form of kinetic energy is best described here?

Possible Answers:

Rotational 

Translational

None of the Above

Vibrational

Correct answer:

Vibrational

Explanation:

In the first paragraph, the passage tells us that individual atoms in a bond that move towards and away from each other constitute vibrational energy. Based on the question, the two oxygen atoms oscillate around the central point (the mid-point of their bond). Thus, this is vibrational energy.

Example Question #2 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Both gases and liquids are considered to be fluids that have individual molecules that move around with kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy, defined as the energy related to motion, takes three forms: translational energy that occurs as a molecule moves from position A to position B, rotational energy that occurs as a molecule spins around an imaginary axis at its center of mass, and vibrational energy that occurs as individual atoms in a molecular bond move towards and away from each other. Usually, molecules possess varying combinations of kinetic energy forms. In contrast, potential energy is defined as stored energy that could be released to become kinetic energy. The total energy of a molecule is fixed, meaning that a molecule has some combination of kinetic and potential energies.

 

Varying amount of kinetic and potential energies define how molecules in a fluid interact with each other. For example, when the kinetic energy of a molecule is high (greater than 1000J), it can no longer interact with neighboring molecules strongly enough to remain a liquid. However, if the potential energies are too high (greater than 1000 J), molecules cannot escape a liquid to become a gas. If the kinetic energy is high and the potential energy is low, molecules tend to become a gas and can be modeled by an equation known as the Ideal Gas Law:

 

 

 

Where P is the pressure of a gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of a gas, R is a constant, and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

 

The Ideal Gas Law perfectly applies to particles with no mass, no intermolecular interactions, and no true volume. However, real molecules do not adhere perfectly to the Ideal Gas Law.

An oxygen molecule moving from the left side of a chamber to the right would display what type(s) of kinetic energy?

Possible Answers:

All of the Above

Translational

Rotational

Vibrational

Correct answer:

All of the Above

Explanation:

In the first passage, after describing the different types of kinetic energy, the passage notes that a molecule would likely have varying combinations of kinetic energy. Thus, a molecule moving across the room would display translational, vibrational, and rotational motion.

Example Question #3 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Both gases and liquids are considered to be fluids that have individual molecules that move around with kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy, defined as the energy related to motion, takes three forms: translational energy that occurs as a molecule moves from position A to position B, rotational energy that occurs as a molecule spins around an imaginary axis at its center of mass, and vibrational energy that occurs as individual atoms in a molecular bond move towards and away from each other. Usually, molecules possess varying combinations of kinetic energy forms. In contrast, potential energy is defined as stored energy that could be released to become kinetic energy. The total energy of a molecule is fixed, meaning that a molecule has some combination of kinetic and potential energies.

 

Varying amount of kinetic and potential energies define how molecules in a fluid interact with each other. For example, when the kinetic energy of a molecule is high (greater than 1000J), it can no longer interact with neighboring molecules strongly enough to remain a liquid. However, if the potential energies are too high (greater than 1000 J), molecules cannot escape a liquid to become a gas. If the kinetic energy is high and the potential energy is low, molecules tend to become a gas and can be modeled by an equation known as the Ideal Gas Law:

 

 

 

Where P is the pressure of a gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of a gas, R is a constant, and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

 

The Ideal Gas Law perfectly applies to particles with no mass, no intermolecular interactions, and no true volume. However, real molecules do not adhere perfectly to the Ideal Gas Law.

The relationship between total energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy could best be described as:

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

The end of the first paragraph helps us answer this question. We are told that a molecule contains a fixed amount of total energy and that some combination of kinetic and potential energy combines to create this sum total. Thus, the relationship that best depicts how the various forms of energy relate is .

Example Question #4 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Both gases and liquids are considered to be fluids that have individual molecules that move around with kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy, defined as the energy related to motion, takes three forms: translational energy that occurs as a molecule moves from position A to position B, rotational energy that occurs as a molecule spins around an imaginary axis at its center of mass, and vibrational energy that occurs as individual atoms in a molecular bond move towards and away from each other. Usually, molecules possess varying combinations of kinetic energy forms. In contrast, potential energy is defined as stored energy that could be released to become kinetic energy. The total energy of a molecule is fixed, meaning that a molecule has some combination of kinetic and potential energies.

 

Varying amount of kinetic and potential energies define how molecules in a fluid interact with each other. For example, when the kinetic energy of a molecule is high (greater than 1000J), it can no longer interact with neighboring molecules strongly enough to remain a liquid. However, if the potential energies are too high (greater than 1000 J), molecules cannot escape a liquid to become a gas. If the kinetic energy is high and the potential energy is low, molecules tend to become a gas and can be modeled by an equation known as the Ideal Gas Law:

 

 

 

Where P is the pressure of a gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of a gas, R is a constant, and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

 

The Ideal Gas Law perfectly applies to particles with no mass, no intermolecular interactions, and no true volume. However, real molecules do not adhere perfectly to the Ideal Gas Law.

As the kinetic energy of a molecule increases, one would expect the potential energy to:

Possible Answers:

Cannot Be Determined

Remain the Same

Increase

Decrease

Correct answer:

Decrease

Explanation:

Using the last few sentences of the first paragraph as a guide, we can see that the total energy is fixed. Thus, some combination of kinetic and potential energies makes up the total energy. We can relate how the energies combine with the following formula: . Thus, if the kinetic energy increases, the potential energy would have to decrease to keep the sum total the same.

Example Question #5 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Both gases and liquids are considered to be fluids that have individual molecules that move around with kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy, defined as the energy related to motion, takes three forms: translational energy that occurs as a molecule moves from position A to position B, rotational energy that occurs as a molecule spins around an imaginary axis at its center of mass, and vibrational energy that occurs as individual atoms in a molecular bond move towards and away from each other. Usually, molecules possess varying combinations of kinetic energy forms. In contrast, potential energy is defined as stored energy that could be released to become kinetic energy. The total energy of a molecule is fixed, meaning that a molecule has some combination of kinetic and potential energies.

 

Varying amount of kinetic and potential energies define how molecules in a fluid interact with each other. For example, when the kinetic energy of a molecule is high (greater than 1000J), it can no longer interact with neighboring molecules strongly enough to remain a liquid. However, if the potential energies are too high (greater than 1000 J), molecules cannot escape a liquid to become a gas. If the kinetic energy is high and the potential energy is low, molecules tend to become a gas and can be modeled by an equation known as the Ideal Gas Law:

 

 

 

Where P is the pressure of a gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of a gas, R is a constant, and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

 

The Ideal Gas Law perfectly applies to particles with no mass, no intermolecular interactions, and no true volume. However, real molecules do not adhere perfectly to the Ideal Gas Law.

As the potential energy of a molecule decreases, one would expect the kinetic energy to:

Possible Answers:

Increase

Decrease

Remain the Same

Cannot Be Determined

Correct answer:

Increase

Explanation:

Using the last few sentences of the first paragraph as a guide, we can see that the total energy of a molecule is fixed and contains a fixed combination of kinetic and potential energies. Thus, we can relate the combination to the total by the following formula: . Thus, if the potential energy decreases, the kinetic energy must increase in order to keep the total energy of the molecule constant.

Example Question #4 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Both gases and liquids are considered to be fluids that have individual molecules that move around with kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy, defined as the energy related to motion, takes three forms: translational energy that occurs as a molecule moves from position A to position B, rotational energy that occurs as a molecule spins around an imaginary axis at its center of mass, and vibrational energy that occurs as individual atoms in a molecular bond move towards and away from each other. Usually, molecules possess varying combinations of kinetic energy forms. In contrast, potential energy is defined as stored energy that could be released to become kinetic energy. The total energy of a molecule is fixed, meaning that a molecule has some combination of kinetic and potential energies.

 

Varying amount of kinetic and potential energies define how molecules in a fluid interact with each other. For example, when the kinetic energy of a molecule is high (greater than 1000J), it can no longer interact with neighboring molecules strongly enough to remain a liquid. However, if the potential energies are too high (greater than 1000 J), molecules cannot escape a liquid to become a gas. If the kinetic energy is high and the potential energy is low, molecules tend to become a gas and can be modeled by an equation known as the Ideal Gas Law:

 

 

 

Where P is the pressure of a gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of a gas, R is a constant, and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

 

The Ideal Gas Law perfectly applies to particles with no mass, no intermolecular interactions, and no true volume. However, real molecules do not adhere perfectly to the Ideal Gas Law.

The relationship between kinetic and potential energy may best be illustrated by: 

Possible Answers:

Screen_shot_2014-03-08_at_7.41.43_am

Screen_shot_2014-03-08_at_7.41.38_am

Screen_shot_2014-03-08_at_7.41.24_am

Screen_shot_2014-03-08_at_7.41.33_am

Correct answer:

Screen_shot_2014-03-08_at_7.41.24_am

Explanation:

The first paragraph helps us understand that a total amount of energy is fixed per molecule and is a combination of kinetic and potential energies. We can relate the two energies by the following formula: . Thus, as kinetic energy decreases, potential energy increases. The only curve that shows this relationship is a linear curve with a negative slope.

Example Question #7 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

Chemists can model how solids, liquids, and gases behave at different temperatures and pressures with a graph called a phase diagram. When the pressure and temperature are simultaneously known, a scientist can predict whether the material will be in a specific state. The diagram is divided into sections depending on the phase and the lines between sections represent phase transitions occurring between two or more separate phases.

In general, solids of neatly stacked molecules exist when temperatures are low and pressures are intermediate. These values decrease the kinetic energy of the molecules enough to allow for attractive forces to begin the stacking process. Liquids, by contrast, are found at intermediate pressures and temperatures. The temperature is high enough to impart enough kinetic energy to prevent solid formation and the pressure is high enough to prevent the liquid from becoming a gas. Finally, a gas forms at low pressures and high temperatures. The high level of kinetic energy prevents molecules from associating with one another.

Materials can undergo processes called phase transitions, meaning they can transition from one phase to another. The transition from a solid to a liquid is called melting, while the reverse transition is called freezing. Vaporization occurs when a liquid becomes a gas, while condensation occurs when a gas becomes a liquid. Finally, in a process called sublimation, a solid can directly become a gas without passing through a liquid phase. Additionally, when a gas directly becomes a solid, this is known as deposition.

 Act_ps

In order to predict the state of a material, the scientist must know __________.

Possible Answers:

Temperature

Pressure

Neither Temperature Nor Pressure

Both Temperature and Pressure

Correct answer:

Both Temperature and Pressure

Explanation:

The passage states that a scientist must know both temperature and pressure in order to find where in the phase diagram a material is. Without this knowledge, the scientist cannot determine whether the material is in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state.

Example Question #5 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

The Millikin oil drop experiment is among the most important experiments in the history of science.  It was used to determine one of the fundamental constants of the universe, the charge on the electron. For his work, Robert Millikin won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923.

Millikin used an experimental setup as follows in Figure 1. He opened a chamber of oil into an adjacent uniform electric field.  The oil droplets sank into the electric field once the trap door opened, but were then immediately suspended by the forces of electricity present in the field.

Figure 1:

Millikin

By determining how much force was needed to exactly counteract the gravity pulling the oil droplet down, Millikin was able to determine the force of electricity.  This is depicted in Figure 2.

Using this information, he was able to calculate the exact charge on an electron.  By changing some conditions, such as creating a vacuum in the apparatus, the experiment can be modified. 

Figure 2:

Millikin_drop

When the drop is suspended perfectly, the total forces up equal the total forces down.  Because Millikin knew the electric field in the apparatus, the force of air resistance, the mass of the drop, and the acceleration due to gravity, he was able to solve the following equation: 

Table 1 summarizes the electric charge found on oil drops in suspension.  Millikin correctly concluded that the calculated charges must all be multiples of the fundamental charge of the electron.  A hypothetical oil drop contains some net charge due to lost electrons, and this net charge cannot be smaller than the charge on a single electron.

Table 1: 

Trial #

Electric Charge Calculated in Coulombs (C)

Vacuum Used?

1

1.602176487 x 10-8

No

2

1.602176487 x 10-2

Yes

3

1.602176487 x 10-6

No

4

1.602176487 x 10-4

Yes

 

Based only on the information in the passage, which of the following could be the charge of one electron?

I.  1.602176487 x 10-6 C

II. 1.602176487 x 10-2 C

III. 1.602176487 × 10-19 C

IV. 1.602176487 × 10-17 C

Possible Answers:

III and IV

I and IV

I and II

I and III

I, II, III, and IV

Correct answer:

III and IV

Explanation:

The oil drops are suspended in the electric field by a charge that is equal to the net charge on the oil droplet.  The passage and data table suggest that the oil drops all have total net charges that are multiples of either III or IV. This is because each electron on a drop has a charge that is some factor of the total net charge on the oil droplet.  In other words, if there is one electron with charge X and you have 100 excess electrons, you will have a total charge of 100X.  Based just on the information in the passage, the answer could be any number that is a factor of the observed values for the oil droplets.

Example Question #9 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

The Millikin oil drop experiment is among the most important experiments in the history of science.  It was used to determine one of the fundamental constants of the universe, the charge on the electron. For his work, Robert Millikin won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923.

Millikin used an experimental setup as follows in Figure 1. He opened a chamber of oil into an adjacent uniform electric field.  The oil droplets sank into the electric field once the trap door opened, but were then immediately suspended by the forces of electricity present in the field.

Figure 1:

Millikin

By determining how much force was needed to exactly counteract the gravity pulling the oil droplet down, Millikin was able to determine the force of electricity.  This is depicted in Figure 2.

Using this information, he was able to calculate the exact charge on an electron.  By changing some conditions, such as creating a vacuum in the apparatus, the experiment can be modified. 

Figure 2:

Millikin_drop

When the drop is suspended perfectly, the total forces up equal the total forces down.  Because Millikin knew the electric field in the apparatus, the force of air resistance, the mass of the drop, and the acceleration due to gravity, he was able to solve the following equation: 

Table 1 summarizes the electric charge found on oil drops in suspension.  Millikin correctly concluded that the calculated charges must all be multiples of the fundamental charge of the electron.  A hypothetical oil drop contains some net charge due to lost electrons, and this net charge cannot be smaller than the charge on a single electron.

Table 1: 

Trial #

Electric Charge Calculated in Coulombs (C)

Vacuum Used?

1

1.602176487 x 10-8

No

2

1.602176487 x 10-2

Yes

3

1.602176487 x 10-6

No

4

1.602176487 x 10-4

Yes

 

Changes to which of the following would likely result in a difference in the observed strength of the electric field needed to suspend an oil drop?

Possible Answers:

The fundamental charge on the electron

All of the choices would change the observed strength of the electric field needed to suspend an oil drop

Strength of the force of gravity

Changes to none of these quantities would change the observed strength of the electric field needed to suspend an oil drop

Total electric charge on the oil drop

Correct answer:

All of the choices would change the observed strength of the electric field needed to suspend an oil drop

Explanation:

The experiment is fundamentally matching the net electric charge on the oil drop with an external electric field to exactly counteract the force of gravity.  As a result, changes to any of these quantities will change the observed results.

Example Question #10 : How To Find Research Summary In Chemistry

The Millikin oil drop experiment is among the most important experiments in the history of science.  It was used to determine one of the fundamental constants of the universe, the charge on the electron. For his work, Robert Millikin won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923.

Millikin used an experimental setup as follows in Figure 1. He opened a chamber of oil into an adjacent uniform electric field.  The oil droplets sank into the electric field once the trap door opened, but were then immediately suspended by the forces of electricity present in the field.

Figure 1:

Millikin

By determining how much force was needed to exactly counteract the gravity pulling the oil droplet down, Millikin was able to determine the force of electricity.  This is depicted in Figure 2.

Using this information, he was able to calculate the exact charge on an electron.  By changing some conditions, such as creating a vacuum in the apparatus, the experiment can be modified. 

Figure 2:

Millikin_drop

When the drop is suspended perfectly, the total forces up equal the total forces down.  Because Millikin knew the electric field in the apparatus, the force of air resistance, the mass of the drop, and the acceleration due to gravity, he was able to solve the following equation: 

Table 1 summarizes the electric charge found on oil drops in suspension.  Millikin correctly concluded that the calculated charges must all be multiples of the fundamental charge of the electron.  A hypothetical oil drop contains some net charge due to lost electrons, and this net charge cannot be smaller than the charge on a single electron.

Table 1: 

Trial #

Electric Charge Calculated in Coulombs (C)

Vacuum Used?

1

1.602176487 x 10-8

No

2

1.602176487 x 10-2

Yes

3

1.602176487 x 10-6

No

4

1.602176487 x 10-4

Yes

 

The electric force experienced by oil drops will vary directly with the magnitude of charge on the drop.  A scientist is measuring two different drops in two different experimental apparatuses, but each in perfect suspension and not moving.  Drop 1 has a greater net charge than does drop 2.  The magnitude of the electric force:

Possible Answers:

May be greater on either drop 1 or drop 2

Is greater on drop 1 than drop 2

Is equal on both drops

Is greater on drop 2 than drop 1

Will initially be greater on drop 1, but then be equal between both drops

Correct answer:

Is greater on drop 1 than drop 2

Explanation:

The electric force, in isolation, will be greater on drop 1 because it has a greater net charge to interact with the external electric field. 

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