ACT Science : How to find data representation in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Biology

A group of scientists wanted to test the effects of Nitra-Grow, a chemical additive that can be given to plants to help them grow.  3 test groups of plants were given all the same time of sunlight, the same type of soil, and the same amount of water.  Plant A was given no extra chemicals.  Plant B was given 5g of Nitra-Grow.  Plant C was given 5g of Ammonia to see if Nitra-Grow worked any better than a basic nitrogen-based household product.  The plants are then measured on 5 consecutive days to find their average height (in cm).

DAY

Height Plant A (cm)

Height Plant B (cm)

Height Plant C (cm)

1

1.2

1.2

1.2

2

1.4

1.4

1.2

3

1.6

1.8

1.3

4

1.8

2.4

1.3

5

2.0

2.6

1.4

On Day 7, what would be plant A’s approximate height? 

Possible Answers:

2.0cm

2.9cm

2.2cm

2.4cm

An approximate answer cannot be made. 

Correct answer:

2.4cm

Explanation:

The answer is 2.4cm. Every day, plant A increases by a normal rate of 0.2cm per day. Thus adding 0.2 two times to 2.0 will result in 2.4cm.  

Example Question #1 : How To Find Data Representation In Biology

A group of scientists wanted to test the effects of Nitra-Grow, a chemical additive that can be given to plants to help them grow.  3 test groups of plants were given all the same time of sunlight, the same type of soil, and the same amount of water.  Plant A was given no extra chemicals.  Plant B was given 5g of Nitra-Grow.  Plant C was given 5g of Ammonia to see if Nitra-Grow worked any better than a basic nitrogen-based household product.  The plants are then measured on 5 consecutive days to find their average height (in cm).

DAY

Height Plant A (cm)

Height Plant B (cm)

Height Plant C (cm)

1

1.2

1.2

1.2

2

1.4

1.4

1.2

3

1.6

1.8

1.3

4

1.8

2.4

1.3

5

2.0

2.6

1.4

Which plant is the control group? 

Possible Answers:

There is no control group.

Plant C

Plant A

Plant B

Correct answer:

Plant A

Explanation:

The answer is Plant A. Plant A is getting no extra treatment, whereas Plants B and C are getting added chemicals. (Even though Plant C is being compared as a generic chemical vs. name brand chemical, it is still getting treatment)  

Example Question #2 : How To Find Data Representation In Biology

Chemotherapy

No treatment

Surgery and Chemotherapy

2 inches

2 inches

2 inches

2.1 inches

3 inches

.05 inches

1.8 inches

5 inches

.09 inches

1.4 inches

7 inches

.05 inches

1 inch

9 inches

.03 inches

 

The table above shows measurements for tumor size growth over time within three different possible treatment methods. Each tumor was first documented at an initial size of 2 inches. Every month each tumor was measured, for a total of five measurements of each tumor. 

 Looking at the "Surgery and Chemotherapy" treatment column, where could one infer that chemotherapy was performed? 

Possible Answers:

0.05 to 0.09 inches

0.09 inches to 0.05 inches

0.05 to 0.03 inches

Nothing can be inferred.

2 inches to 0.05 inches

Correct answer:

0.09 inches to 0.05 inches

Explanation:

One would think that surgery as opposed to chemotherapy resulted in a drastic reduction of tumor size; therefore, the smaller reduction of size can be attributed to chemotherapy (0.09 to 0.05). 

Example Question #3 : How To Find Data Representation In Biology

 

Chemotherapy

No treatment

Surgery and Chemotherapy

2 inches

2 inches

2 inches

2.1 inches

3 inches

.05 inches

1.8 inches

5 inches

.09 inches

1.4 inches

7 inches

.05 inches

1 inch

9 inches

.03 inches

 

The table above shows measurements for tumor size growth over time within three different possible treatment methods. Each tumor was first documented at an initial size of 2 inches. Every month each tumor was measured, for a total of five measurements of each tumor. 

 

Based on the table above, which single method is most effective at reducing tumor size in the shortest period of time?

Possible Answers:

surgery

cannot be answered

chemotherapy

surgery and chemotherapy

no treatment

Correct answer:

surgery

Explanation:

The tumor size decrease from surgery alone was 2 to 0.05 inches, the largest decrease on the chart. Don't be tricked into answering "Surgery and Chemotherapy" because the questions asks for which single method is most effective.

Example Question #5 : Biology

 

Chemotherapy

No treatment

Surgery and Chemotherapy

2 inches

2 inches

2 inches

2.1 inches

3 inches

.05 inches

1.8 inches

5 inches

.09 inches

1.4 inches

7 inches

.05 inches

1 inch

9 inches

.03 inches

 

The table above shows measurements for tumor size growth over time within three different possible treatment methods. Each tumor was first documented at an initial size of 2 inches. Every month each tumor was measured, for a total of five measurements of each tumor.  

What information would be most important to know before drawing conclusions based on this data? 

Possible Answers:

the gender of each patient

patient history

all of the information is important

the stage, location, and growth rate of the cancer using each treatment

none of the information is important

Correct answer:

the stage, location, and growth rate of the cancer using each treatment

Explanation:

The key is here the phrase most important. The location and stage of the cancer would play the biggest role in terms of treatment results. All of the other information would be helpful, but the question asks to prioritize which is the most important. 

Example Question #6 : Biology

Chemotherapy

No treatment

Surgery and Chemotherapy

2 inches

2 inches

2 inches

2.1 inches

3 inches

.05 inches

1.8 inches

5 inches

.09 inches

1.4 inches

7 inches

.05 inches

1 inch

9 inches

.03 inches

 

The table above shows measurements for tumor size growth over time within three different possible treatment methods. Each tumor was first documented at an initial size of 2 inches. Every month each tumor was measured, for a total of five measurements of each tumor.  

 

 

Based on the chart above, what conclusion could be drawn about the "no treatment" option? 

Possible Answers:

When no treatment is done, cancer tends to grow at a steady exponential rate. 

The best option is to always treat cancer, whether it be surgery or chemotherapy. 

Tumor size increases upon no treatment. 

Surgery and Chemotherapy together is the best treatment option. 

Nothing can be concluded.

Correct answer:

Tumor size increases upon no treatment. 

Explanation:

Based on the data, the only conclusion that can be drawn is the tumor size increases. One might be tempted to draw the conclusion out further and say that some treatment is always better than no treatment; however, that is a circumstantial conclusion based on the individual patient cases, and cannot be concluded from the data shown. 

Example Question #7 : Biology

Chemotherapy

No treatment

Surgery and Chemotherapy

2 inches

2 inches

2 inches

2.1 inches

3 inches

.05 inches

1.8 inches

5 inches

.09 inches

1.4 inches

7 inches

.05 inches

1 inch

9 inches

.03 inches

 

The table above shows measurements for tumor size growth over time within three different possible treatment methods. Each tumor was first documented at an initial size of 2 inches. Every month each tumor was measured, for a total of five measurements of each tumor.  

 

What conclusion CANNOT be reached based on the data shown above?

Possible Answers:

Each tumor was measured 5 times.

None of these conclusions can be reached based on the data above.

All three tumors started being observed when they were 2 inches in size.

All of these conclusions can be reached based on the data above.

All three tumors observed grew at the same rate.

Correct answer:

All three tumors observed grew at the same rate.

Explanation:

There is not enough information in the data to know that the cancer cells in all three groups grew at the same rate. Cancer cells can grow at different rates depending on size, stage, and other factors.

Example Question #2 : How To Find Data Representation In Biology

 

 

G

g

g

Gg

gg

g

Gg

gg

 

Scientist’s believe they have found the gene accountable for intelligence. The allele “G” is dominant, and the allele “g” is recessive. The intelligence gene is optimally expressed in the homozygous recessive form. The chart above shows the trait in the heterozygous form and the homozygous form. The form “gg” is from the mother, and “Gg” is from the father. The parents want to know what the gene might look like in their child.

What form the of the gene expresses optimal intelligence?

Possible Answers:

Gg

gG

none of the options listed

GG

gg

Correct answer:

gg

Explanation:

The prompt states the intelligence gene is "optimally expressed in the homozygous recessive form." Therefore, this is the "gg" form.

Example Question #9 : Biology

 

 

G

g

g

Gg

gg

g

Gg

gg

 

 

Scientist’s believe they have found the gene accountable for intelligence. The allele “G” is dominant, and the allele “g” is recessive. The intelligence gene is optimally expressed in the homozygous recessive form. The chart above shows the trait in the heterozygous form and the homozygous form. The form “gg” is from the mother, and “Gg” is from the father. The parents want to know what the gene might look like in their child. 

According to the chart above, what are the chances of the child inheriting the optimal form of the gene? 

Possible Answers:

0%

75%

50%

25%

100%

Correct answer:

50%

Explanation:

The optimal form of the gene is the homozygous reccesive "gg," which has a 50 percent chance of resulting from the parental cross. 

Example Question #1 : How To Find Data Representation In Biology

 

 

G

g

g

Gg

gg

g

Gg

gg

 

 

Scientist’s believe they have found the gene accountable for intelligence. The allele “G” is dominant, and the allele “g” is recessive. The intelligence gene is optimally expressed in the homozygous recessive form. The chart above shows the trait in the heterozygous form and the homozygous form. The form “gg” is from the mother, and “Gg” is from the father. The parents want to know what the gene might look like in their child. 

According to the data given, what could one infer about the phenotype for "Gg?" 

Possible Answers:

Individuals with the form "Gg" will exhibit below optimal intelligence.

Individuals with the form "Gg" will be above the normal level of intelligence, but only partially. 

One cannot infer any phenotypic information about the form "Gg."

Individuals with the form "Gg" will not exhibt any intelligence above the average.

Individuals with the form "Gg" could exhibit two possible phenotypes. One phenotype is optimal intelligence; the other phenotype is average intelligence. 

Correct answer:

One cannot infer any phenotypic information about the form "Gg."

Explanation:

The prompt does not tell what the phenotype of "Gg" is, it just mentions the phenotype for "gg" is optimal intelligence. 

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